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孩子学习语言的重要性

外教分享婴幼儿时期是人类语言发展的关键时期,这已被大量心理学研究和学前教育实践所证明。大家都知道"狼孩"的故事。她7岁回到人类社会,从那时开始学说话。经过几年的时间,由专人训练,最终她只学会了少量简单词汇,言语能力远远低于同龄儿童。一位名叫基尼的美国女孩,从被父母关在一间小屋子里,没有机会和周围人说话。她13年零7个月时被人救出来,当时她完全没有语言能力,心理成熟程度只相当于1岁儿童。后来由专人对她进行辅导和训练。她的语言发展速度非常缓慢,经过四年,她说的话依然支离破碎,类似2岁左右孩子说的“电报句”,这2个都是非常典型的早期语言剥夺的例子。这2个可怜的女孩的经历有力说明了语言发展存在一定的关键时期。

Foreign teachers'sharing of infants and young children is the key period of human language development, which has been proved by a large number of psychological research and pre-school education practice. Everyone knows the story of wolf boy. She returned to human society at the age of 7, and since then she began to learn to speak. After several years of training, she finally learned only a few simple words, and her speech ability was far lower than that of her peers. An American girl named Gini, who was confined by her parents in a small room, had no chance to talk to people around her. She was rescued in 13 years and 7 months, when she had no language skills at all, and her psychological maturity was equivalent to that of a 1-year-old child. Later, she was specially trained and trained by her. Her language is developing very slowly. After four years, her words are still fragmented, similar to the "telegram sentences" spoken by children around two years old. These two are very typical examples of early language deprivation. The experience of these 2 poor girls strongly indicates that there is a critical period in language development.

一 幼儿语音的发展

The development of children's pronunciation

幼儿期是语音可塑性最大的时期。心理学研究发现,4岁以上的幼儿一般基本能掌握全部的语音。从3-6岁,出现语音不准的的幼儿越来越少,其中,3-4岁是语音发展最迅速的时期,也是纠正幼儿发音的关键期,幼儿在3-4岁之前,儿童的语音发展呈现扩展趋势,即从儿童从不会发音节清晰的语音,逐渐能学会越来越多的语音;3-4岁之后,儿童学习语音的趋势开始收缩,即儿童在掌握母语的语音后,语音开始定型化,再学其他语言的语音时会出现困难。3-4岁之前的儿童相当容易学会世界各民族的语言的语音;但之后学习第二语言就比较困难了,而且年龄越大,儿童学习第二语言就越容易受到第一语言的干扰。因此学英语还是其他第二语言学的越早越好。

Early childhood is the most significant period of speech plasticity. Psychological studies have found that children over the age of 4 are generally able to master all the speech. From the age of 3-6, there are fewer and fewer children with inaccurate pronunciation. Among them, the age of 3-4 is the fastest developing period of pronunciation and the key period for correcting children's pronunciation. Before the age of 3-4, children's pronunciation development shows an expanding trend, that is, from children never have clear syllable pronunciation, they can gradually learn more and more pronunciation. After the age of 3-4, the tendency of children to learn phonetics began to shrink, that is, after mastering the phonetics of their mother tongue, the phonetics began to be stereotyped, and it would be difficult for them to learn the phonetics of other languages. Before the age of 3-4, children are quite easy to learn the pronunciation of the languages of different nationalities in the world; but after that, learning a second language is more difficult, and the older they are, the more vulnerable they are to the interference of the first language in learning a second language. So the sooner we learn English or the other second, the sooner we learn it.

二 幼儿词汇的发展

Two development of children's vocabulary

幼儿语言发展的一项重要任务是学习和掌握英语或其他语言的基本词汇,即社会上的通用词汇。幼儿词汇的发展主要表现在三个方面:词汇量的增加,词汇类别扩大和词义理解的深化。

An important task of children's language development is to learn and master the basic vocabulary of English or other languages, that is, common vocabulary in society. The development of children's vocabulary is mainly manifested in three aspects: the increase of vocabulary, the enlargement of vocabulary categories and the deepening of understanding of word meanings.

三 幼儿句子和语段的发展

Three development of children's sentences and paragraphs

(一)句子的发展

(1) development of sentences

幼儿说出的句子所含有的单词量一般在4-6个,最多不超过10个,4-5岁是句子长度发展比较明显的时期,3岁以前的孩子是没有修饰的简单句,3岁以后有修饰的句子迅速增加。6岁的话语中有91.3%的句子有修饰成分。

Children's sentences usually contain 4-6 words, up to 10 words. 4-5 years old is a period of obvious development of sentence length. Children before 3 years old are simple sentences without modification. After 3 years old, the number of sentences with modification increases rapidly. 91.3% of the 6 year old sentences have modifiers.

(二)语段的发展

(two) development of paragraph

3岁之前,儿童的语言主要是情景语言,即只有结合具体情境,借助于表情或手势等非言语手段才能明白对方的意思。3-4岁儿童语言仍带有明显的情境性,他们说的话往往不完整不连贯。随着年龄增长,幼儿的语言的情境性语言越来越少,连贯性语言逐渐增多,能够表达完整的意思能说完整的故事。

Before the age of 3, children's language is mainly situational language, that is, only by combining specific situations and using non-verbal means such as expressions or gestures, can they understand each other's meaning. Children of 3-4 years old still have obvious situational language. What they say is often incomplete and incoherent. With the increase of age, the contextual language of children's language is becoming less and less, and the coherence language is gradually increasing, which can express the complete meaning and tell the complete story.

无论是语音 词汇 还是听说,幼儿的各方面语言能力都处于迅速发展的时期。在此阶段,如果给以适宜的丰富刺激,在加上指导,儿童的语言就能取得长足的进步,出现飞跃。因此幼儿期是语言教育的关键时期,幼儿语言教育质量可能对幼儿终身的语言能力产生影响。

Whether it is phonetic vocabulary or listening and speaking, all aspects of children's language ability are in a period of rapid development. At this stage, if given appropriate stimulation and guidance, children's language can make great progress and leap forward. Therefore, early childhood is the key period of language education, and the quality of language education in early childhood may have an impact on children's lifelong language ability.

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